Anatomy of The Eye

Anatomy Of The Eye


The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power.


Another very important part of your eye, just inside the front, near the outer edge of colored iris, is an area called the angle. Here, there is a constant inflow and outflow of nourishing, clear aqueous fluid, which travels from behind your iris, through the pupil, and out an area called the trabecular meshwork.


Behind your cornea, your eye has a clear lens, whose function is to fine-focus near and far objects. The lens is flexible, and can change shape, thereby focusing light on the retina on the back wall of your eye.

The lens consists of four layers. It is this lens, inside your eye, that can develop into what is known as a cataract.

Ciliary Body

Encircling the lens is a structure called the ciliary body. Muscles inside the ciliary body change the shape of the flexible lens.

Vitreous Humor

The normal eye is filled with a gel-like material called Vitreous Humor. Over time, the vitreous can undergo change, forming small collagen condensations called Floaters, that appear to move in our vision.


On the back wall is the retina, which performs like the film in a camera. The retina is an amazing creation of special living cells. It records the moving images from the world around you, transforming light into nerve impulses. The light absorbing cells of the retina are called rods and cones. The living cells of the retina are nourished by a complex vascular structure underneath, called the choroid.

Macula or Fovea

Your clearest vision occurs at the center of the retina, in a very small area called the macula. The macula has a very high concentration of cone cells.

Optic Nerve

Light is transformed into nerve impulses within the retina. These nerve impulses travel out of your eye through the optic nerve to your brain.